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About  the origin and effect of ultrasonic waves


How  ultrasound can be used in measurement technology


have taken advantage of this form of sound waves in a variety of forms and in a wide variety of areas

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Humans  can only perceive acoustic sound waves in the audible frequency range (between 16Hz and 20kHz).

Below  this is the "infrasound" (such waves occur, for example, during earthquakes) or above that the frequency range of the "ultrasound".

About  a sound frequency of 1GHz we even speak of "hypersonic".

Today,  ultrasound is commonly referred to as the medical examination procedure ("sonography"), but the spectrum of practical applications is much larger.

In  the wild nature, many living beings use ultrasound for spatial orientation, for prey hunting or for communication.

Thanks  to its relatively simple technical implementation and the constant development of technology, ultrasound has long been an integral part of people's everyday lives.

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Generation, properties and effects

 Some  animals generate ultrasonic waves using their natural organs.

Humans  either use very simple means (dog whistle) or they use appropriate technological means (piezo crystals or special ferromagnets).

Ultrasound  propagates at different speeds in different media (gases, liquids, solids). in addition to volume elasticity (also gases and liquids), solid bodies also have formula elasticity.

As  a result, "transverse waves" and "longitudinal waves" can occur in solids.

The  transition of ultrasound between substances of different physical states (e.g. air / water) only happens if the sound waves are emitted in the immediate vicinity or if there is a coupling medium with similar acoustic properties between the two substances, because depending on the material, ultrasound becomes an obstacle to it Surface reflects or absorbs (insulated, swallowed).

These  properties are used in a wide variety of applications,

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Use in industrial measurement technology

The  most common applications are continuous level measurement or point level detection.

Due  to its properties, ultrasound can be used for solids (bulk materials) as well as for liquids.

Further  fields of application are the flow measurement of liquids and gases in closed pipes or in open channels, but also the mass flow measurement of solids (bulk goods) on conveyor systems.

Two  methods can be implemented using ultrasound:
● Runtime measurement (mainly for level measurement)
● Doppler method (only for flow measurement of liquids)

In  all cases, these are non-contact processes, i.e. there is no direct contact with the measuring medium, although partially invasive measurements (the US sensor is not separated from the process by the tank wall) are carried out.


Scheme level measurement


Scheme flow measurement

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Types of radiation

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Gamma radiation

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Infrared radiation

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Neutron radiation

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